No time in the history Nigeria, has revenue mobilization suffered severe shocks compared to now. While oil revenue has continued to face increasing exposure from global fundamentals – which led to dwindling inflow to the government, on the other hand, poor remittances from government ministries, departments and agencies (MDAs), leakages in tax collection, deepening of drought/floods in different regions of the country and insurgencies, on the other hand, have continued to affect inflow from non-oil sources.
It is generally accepted that it is the responsibility of management within each of the individual government institutions who are responsible for public capital investments, and thus who have a primary responsibility to undertake the appropriate amount of monitoring and evaluation for their investment projects. It is also accepted that legislative oversight is vitally important. This article directs itself towards the latter and highlights the practical opportunities that exist for such oversight, including specific review questions that can be used.
In recent times, several studies point to the ineffectiveness and poor quality of governmental expenditures over the past three decades in Nigeria. It is quite surprising that such studies highlight deficiencies in the structure and management of public expenditures given the directly observable dismal macroeconomic indices. The goal of this study is to examine the role and impact of leadership, especially presidential leadership, on expenditure profiles. The study adopts a conceptual review of the leadership traits theory to identify the desirable traits for presidential leadership and determine if the three Nigerian presidents from 1999-2014 possessed these traits and, more importantly, if it has had any impact on public expenditure structuring. In all, eight key traits were deemed important in the literature. It was found that the Nigerian presidents exhibited different traits and that each of the presidents responded differently to expenditure management. The author conclude that even though there is a need for more analytical as well as leadership theoretical framework in the Nigerian context, the contention is that possessing the leadership traits of integrity and other desirable traits may not suffice and a framework similar to a model a transformational leadership may be more appropriate for eliciting the desirable reforms of public expenditure management in Nigeria.
This article establishes a constitutional principle with far reaching policy imperatives at the national and country levels. The principle leaves it open for the legislators at the national and country levels to pass appropriate laws that will lead to the implementation of this principle. It is only through such laws that the use and distribution of public resources can be affected by government so as to make Kenyans enjoy this constitutional principle in reality.
In recent times, quite a few studies have been published on the different kinds of formal training and teaching programmes in legislative studies conducted by different law schools of universities and other institutions. Some of the major studies in this respect include: Donaldson, Miers and page, McHenderson and St. John Bates, Stern, Crabbe, Webster, Xanxhaki, Jaja, and most recently Nand. General, the articles listed above have published studies of formal training programmes conducted by law schools and institutions within the United States of America, the United Kingdom (London and Edinburgh respectively), Fiji, South Pacific and even Zimbabwe. However, none of these studies has undertaken an examination of formal training programmes in legislative drafting that are currently on offer by institutions within Nigeria. This article attempts to fill this gap by examining the strengths and the weaknesses of the formal legislative drafting programmes on offer in Nigeria offered by the National Institute For Legislative Studies (NILS), National Assembly and the Nigerian Institute Of Advanced Legal Studies (NIALS).
Disclosing information about the money governments received from exploiting oil, gas and minerals is the first step towards guaranteeing that these resources benefit the public. This information allows legislators and citizens to ask questions and shape how their government manages these resources and the earnings they generate. The Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) aims to improve governance in resource-rich counties through the verification and full publication of company payments. Companies disclose payments and government reveal receipts, both of which are then verified and marched by an independent administrator. A multi-stakeholder group comprised of civic groups, companies and government officials oversee this process. Parliament can use EITI to hold government and companies accountable. As members of their country's multi-stakeholder group, legislators can generate valuable information and ask questions about the executive's resource management. EITI also creates a platform to discuss other problems within the sector, such as compensation and social responsibility, which are particularly relevant to legislators' constituents.
While large-scale oil, gas or mineral production can be a blessing, generating revenues to accelerate growth and reduce poverty, it can also lead to major macroeconomic and structural challenges. These can include: wasteful spending and mismanagement of revenues; real exchange rate appreciation (aka Dutch disease), which is harmful to exporters and can create dependence on natural resources; destabilizing government budget volatility; exchange rate and inflation volatility debt crises fuelled by resource revenues; and conflict over control of resources. Parliamentarians can propose policies to overcome each of these challenges and can ensure that revenues are managed in the public’s best interest. For example, parliamentarians can introduce or improve natural resource funds or revenue sharing regimes, as well as ensure that the government invests for the benefit of present future generations.